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Interested in learning about Biofilms? These videos provide great summaries:

  • Study: Contamination increased 2,000x with Bair Hugger warming. Here is video evidence of the vortex-effect caused by forced-air warming, similar to what was studied by Legg and Hamer.


  • Download APIC's Guide to the Elimination of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections (PDF)

  • Information about the Unintended Consequence of Forced-air Patient Warming (Heat-Rises Blog)

  • ECRI Guidance says forced-air warming "especially concerning during orthopedic surgeries"

  • Video summarizing forced-air warming contamination problem